Simple functional exercises can assist with increasing range of movement in the forelimb of dogs

by Nadia Kopec, Gillian Tabor and Jane Williams Introduction Canine research supports using steps and ramps within therapeutic rehabilitation after orthopaedic or neurological injury and surgery. However, there are gaps in the research to support their effects and application. Ascending steps or ramps increases shoulder, elbow, carpus, hip, stifle and tarsus joint range of movement and strengthens the muscles used to propel the animal forwards and upwards [1,3]. Physics tells us that what goes up must come down, so understanding the biomechanical impact of descending steps or a ramp as part of a canine rehabilitation regime is vital to ensure...

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